## 4.5.1 Standard - Model

Overview

The standard - model in ANSYS FLUENT is based on the Wilcox - model [ 379], which incorporates modifications for low-Reynolds-number effects, compressibility, and shear flow spreading. The Wilcox model predicts free shear flow spreading rates that are in close agreement with measurements for far wakes, mixing layers, and plane, round, and radial jets, and is thus applicable to wall-bounded flows and free shear flows. A variation of the standard - model called the SST - model is also available in ANSYS FLUENT, and is described in Section  4.5.2.

The standard - model is an empirical model based on model transport equations for the turbulence kinetic energy ( ) and the specific dissipation rate ( ), which can also be thought of as the ratio of to  [ 379].

As the - model has been modified over the years, production terms have been added to both the and equations, which have improved the accuracy of the model for predicting free shear flows.

Transport Equations for the Standard - Model

The turbulence kinetic energy, , and the specific dissipation rate, , are obtained from the following transport equations:

 (4.5-1)

and

 (4.5-2)

In these equations, represents the generation of turbulence kinetic energy due to mean velocity gradients. represents the generation of . and represent the effective diffusivity of and , respectively. and represent the dissipation of and due to turbulence. All of the above terms are calculated as described below. and are user-defined source terms.

Modeling the Effective Diffusivity

The effective diffusivities for the - model are given by

 (4.5-3) (4.5-4)

where and are the turbulent Prandtl numbers for and , respectively. The turbulent viscosity, , is computed by combining and as follows:

 (4.5-5)

Low-Reynolds-Number Correction

The coefficient damps the turbulent viscosity causing a low-Reynolds-number correction. It is given by

 (4.5-6)

where

 (4.5-7) (4.5-8) (4.5-9) (4.5-10)

Note that, in the high-Reynolds-number form of the - model, .

Modeling the Turbulence Production

Production of

The term represents the production of turbulence kinetic energy. From the exact equation for the transport of , this term may be defined as

 (4.5-11)

To evaluate in a manner consistent with the Boussinesq hypothesis,

 (4.5-12)

where is the modulus of the mean rate-of-strain tensor, defined in the same way as for the - model (see Equation  4.4-22).

Production of

The production of is given by

 (4.5-13)

where is given by Equation  4.5-11.

The coefficient is given by

 (4.5-14)

where = 2.95. and Re are given by Equations  4.5-6 and 4.5-7, respectively.

Note that, in the high-Reynolds-number form of the - model, .

Modeling the Turbulence Dissipation

Dissipation of

The dissipation of is given by

 (4.5-15)

where

 (4.5-16)

where

 (4.5-17)

and

 (4.5-18) (4.5-19) (4.5-20) (4.5-21) (4.5-22)

where Re is given by Equation  4.5-7.

Dissipation of

The dissipation of is given by

 (4.5-23)

where

 (4.5-24) (4.5-25) (4.5-26)

The strain rate tensor, is defined in Equation  4.3-11. Also,

 (4.5-27)

and are defined by Equations  4.5-19 and 4.5-28, respectively.

Compressibility Correction

The compressibility function, , is given by

 (4.5-28)

where

 (4.5-29) (4.5-30) (4.5-31)

Note that, in the high-Reynolds-number form of the - model, . In the incompressible form, .

Model Constants

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