[ANSYS, Inc. Logo] return to home search
next up previous contents index



1    User manual for 1993 version pulverized coal gasification and combustion 3-dimensional (pcgc-3).
Advanced Combustion Engineering Research Center, Brigham Young University, 1993.

2    T. Ahmad, S. L. Plee, and J. P. Myers.
Computation of Nitric Oxide and Soot Emissions from Turbulent Diffusion Flames.
J. of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 107:48-53, 1985.

3    B. J. Alder and T. E. Wainwright.
Studies in Molecular Dynamics II: Behaviour of a Small Number of Elastic Spheres.
J. Chem. Phys., 33:1439, 1960.

4    A. A. Amsden.
KIVA-3: A KIVA Program with Block-Structured Mesh for Complex Geometries.
Technical Report LA-12503-MS, UC-361, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, March 1993.

5    T. B. Anderson and R. Jackson.
A Fluid Mechanical Description of Fluidized Beds.
I & EC Fundam., 6:527-534, 1967.

6    W. Anderson and D. L. Bonhus.
An Implicit Upwind Algorithm for Computing Turbulent Flows on Unstructured Grids.
Computers Fluids, 23(1):1-21, 1994.

7    A. Antifora, M. Sala, A. Perera, and L. Vigevano.
NOx Emissions in Combustion Systems of Coal Fired Furnaces with a Reducing Environment: Predictions and Measurements.
In Fourth International Conference on Technologies and Combustion for a Clean Environment, Lisbon, Portugal, 1997.

8    S. Armsfield and R. Street.
The Fractional-Step Method for the Navier-Stokes Equations on Staggered Grids: Accuracy of Three Variations.
Journal of Computational Physics, 153:660-665, 1999.

9    F. Backmier, K. H. Eberius, and T. Just.
Comb. Sci. Tech., 7:77, 1973.

10    S. Badzioch and P. G. W. Hawksley.
Kinetics of Thermal Decomposition of Pulverized Coal Particles.
Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Design and Development, 9:521-530, 1970.

11    J. Baldyga.
Turbulent mixer model with application to homogenous instantaneous chemical reactions.
Chem. Eng. Sci., 44:1175-1182, 1989.

12    R. S. Barlow, G. J. Fiechtner, C. D. Carter, and J. Y. Chen.
Experiments on the Scalar Structure of Turbulent CO/H $_2$/N $_2$ Jet Flames.
Combustion and Flame, 120:549-569, 2000.

13    F. J. Barnes, J. H. Bromly, T. J. Edwards, and R. Madngezewsky.
NOx Emissions from Radiant Gas Burners.
Journal of the Institute of Energy, 155:184-188, 1988.

14    T. J. Barth and D. Jespersen.
The design and application of upwind schemes on unstructured meshes.
Technical Report AIAA-89-0366, AIAA 27th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nevada, 1989.

15    H. Barths, C. Antoni, and N. Peters.
Three-Dimensional Simulation of Pollutant Formation in a DI-Diesel Engine Using Multiple Interactive Flamelets.
SAE Paper, SAE, 1998.

16    H. Barths, N. Peters, N. Brehm, A. Mack, M. Pfitzner, and V. Smiljanowski.
Simulation of pollutant formation in a gas turbine combustor using unsteady flamelets.
In 27th Symp. (Int'l.) on Combustion, pages 1841-1847. The Combustion Institute, 1998.

17    G. K. Batchelor.
An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics.
Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, England, 1967.

18    D. L. Baulch, D. D. Drysdall, D. G. Horne, and A. C. Lloyd.
Evaluated Kinetic Data for High Temperature Reactions, volume 1,2,3.
Butterworth, 1973.

19    D. L. Baulch et al.
Evaluated Kinetic Data for Combustion Modelling.
J. Physical and Chemical Reference Data, 21(3), 1992.

20    M. M. Baum and P. J. Street.
Predicting the Combustion Behavior of Coal Particles.
Combust. Sci. Tech., 3(5):231-243, 1971.

21    L. L. Baxter.
Turbulent Transport of Particles.
PhD thesis, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, 1989.

22    L. L. Baxter and P. J. Smith.
Turbulent Dispersion of Particles: The STP Model.
Energy & Fuels, 7:852-859, 1993.

23    W. Bechara, C. Bailly, P. Lafon, and S. Candel.
Stochastic Approach to Noise Modeling for Free Turbulent Flows.
AIAA Journal, 32:3, 1994.

24    M. Behnia, S. Parneix, Y. Shabany, and P. A. Durbin.
Numerical Study of Turbulent Heat Transfer in Confined and Unconfined Impinging Jets.
International Jounal of Heat and Fluid Flow, 20:1-9, 1999.

25    R. W. Bilger and R. E. Beck.
In 15th Symp. (Int'l.) on Combustion, page 541. The Combustion Institute, 1975.

26    R. W. Bilger, M. B. Esler, and S. H. Starner.
On Reduced Mechanisms for Methane-Air Combustion.
In Lecture Notes in Physics, volume 384, page 86. Springer-Verlag, 1991.

27    B. Binniger, M. Chan, G. Paczkko, and M. Herrmann.
Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Partially Premixed Hydrogen Flames with the Flamelet Model.
Technical report, Advanced Combustion Gmbh, Internal Report, 1998.

28    G. A. Bird.
Molecular Gas Dynamics and the direct Simulation of Gas Flows.
Oxford University Press, New York, 1994.

29    J. Blauvens, B. Smets, and J. Peters.
In 16th Symp. (Int'l.) on Combustion. The Combustion Institute, 1977.

30    Blint.
Principles of Combustion.
Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1988.

31    R. M. Bowen.
Theory of Mixtures.
In A. C. Eringen, editor, Continuum Physics, pages 1-127. Academic Press, New York, 1976.

32    C. T. Bowman.
Chemistry of Gaseous Pollutant Formation and Destruction.
In W. Bartok and A. F. Sarofim, editors, Fossil Fuel Combustion. J. Wiley and Sons, Canada, 1991.

33    R. K. Boyd and J. H. Kent.
Three-dimensional furnace computer modeling.
In 21st Symp. (Int'l.) on Combustion, pages 265-274. The Combustion Institute, 1986.

34    J. U. Brackbill, D. B. Kothe, and C. Zemach.
A Continuum Method for Modeling Surface Tension.
J. Comput. Phys., 100:335-354, 1992.

35    A. Brandt.
Multi-level Adaptive Computations in Fluid Dynamics.
Technical Report AIAA-79-1455, AIAA, Williamsburg, VA, 1979.

36    K. N. Bray and N. Peters.
Laminar Flamelets in Turbulent Flames.
In P. A. Libby and F. A. Williams, editors, Turbulent Reacting Flows, pages 63-114. Academic Press, 1994.

37    C.E. Brennen.
Cavitation and Bubble Dynamics.
Oxford University Press, 1995.

38    K. S. Brentner and F. Farassat.
An Analytical Comparison of the Acoustic Analogy and Kirchhoff Formulations for Moving Surfaces.
AIAA Journal, 36(8), 1998.

39    S. J. Brookes and J. B. Moss.
Prediction of Soot and Thermal Radiation in Confined Turbulent Jet Diffusion Flames.
Combustion and Flame, 116:486-503, 1999.

40    J. Brouwer, M. P. Heap, D. W. Pershing, and P. J. Smith.
A Model for Prediction of Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides by Ammonia, Urea, and Cyanuric Acid with Mixing Limitations in the Presence of CO.
In 26th Symposium (Int'l) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, 1996.

41    A. L. Brown.
Modeling Soot in Pulverized Coal Flames.
MSc thesis, Brigham Young University, Utah, USA, 1997.

42    S. Brunauer.
The Absorption of Gases and Vapors.
Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1943.

43    Trong T. Bui.
A Parallel, Finite-Volume Algorithm for Large-Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flows.
Technical Memorandum NASA/TM-1999-206570, 1999.

44    S. Candel and T. Poinsot.
Flame stretch and the balance equation for the flame area.
Combustion Science and Technology, 70:1-15, 1990.

45    R. Cao and S. B. Pope.
Numerical Integration of Stochastic Differential Equations: Weak Second-Order Mid-Point Scheme for Application in the Composition PDF Method.
Journal of Computational Physics, 185(1):194-212, 2003.

46    N. F. Carnahan and K. E. Starling.
Equations of State for Non-Attracting Rigid Spheres.
J. Chem. Phys., 51:635-636, 1969.

47    M. G. Carvalho, T. Farias, and P. Fontes.
Predicting Radiative Heat Transfer in Absorbing, Emitting, and Scattering Media Using the Discrete Transfer Method.
In W. A. Fiveland et al., editor, Fundamentals of Radiation Heat Transfer, volume 160, pages 17-26. ASME HTD, 1991.

48    J. R. Cash and A. H. Karp.
A variable order Runge-Kutta method for initial value problems with rapidly varying right-hand sides.
ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software, 16:201-222, 1990.

49    S. Chapman and T. G. Cowling.
The Mathematical Theory of Non-Uniform Gases.
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 3rd edition, 1990.

50    S. Charpenay, M. A. Serio, and P. R. Solomon.
In 24th Symp. (Int'l.) on Combustion, pages 1189-1197. The Combustion Institute, 1992.

51    H. C. Chen and V. C. Patel.
Near-Wall Turbulence Models for Complex Flows Including Separation.
AIAA Journal, 26(6):641-648, 1988.

52    P. Cheng.
Two-Dimensional Radiating Gas Flow by a Moment Method.
AIAA Journal, 2:1662-1664, 1964.

53    R. V. Chima and M. S. Liou.
Comparison of the AUSM+ and H-CUSP schemes for turbomachinery applications.
NASA TM-2003-212457, 2003.

54    A. J. Chorin.
Numerical solution of navier-stokes equations.
Mathematics of Computation, 22:745-762, 1968.

55    B. H. Chowdhury.
Emission Control Alternatives for Electric Utility Power Plants.
Energy Sources, 18(4):393-406, October 1996.

56    E. H. Chui and G. D. Raithby.
Computation of Radiant Heat Transfer on a Non-Orthogonal Mesh Using the Finite-Volume Method.
Numerical Heat Transfer, Part B, 23:269-288, 1993.

57    Clift, Grace, and Weber.
Bubbles, Drops, and Particles.
Technical report, Academic Press, 1978.

58    D. Cokljat, V. A. Ivanov, F. J. Sarasola, and S. A. Vasquez.
Multiphase k-epsilon Models for Unstructured Meshes.
In ASME 2000 Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting, Boston, USA, 2000.

59    D. Cokljat, M. Slack, and S. A. Vasquez.
Reynolds-Stress Model for Eulerian Multiphase.
In Y. Nagano K. Hanjalic and M. J. Tummers, editors, Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Turbulence Heat and Mass Transfer, pages 1047-1054. Begell House, Inc., 2003.

60    A. Coppalle and P. Vervisch.
The Total Emissivities of High-Temperature Flames.
Combustion and Flame, 49:101-108, 1983.

61    S. M. Correa.
A Review of NOx Formation Under Gas-Turbine Combustion Conditions.
Combustion Science and Technology, 87:329-362, 1992.

62    C. Crowe, M. Sommerfield, and Yutaka Tsuji.
Multiphase Flows with Droplets and Particles.
CRC Press, 1998.

63    G. T. Csanady.
Turbulent Diffusion of Heavy Particles in the Atmosphere.
J. Atmos. Science, 20:201-208, 1963.

64    N. Curle.
The Influence of Solid Boundaries upon Aerodynamic Sound.
Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, 231:505-514, 1955.

65    J. Dacles-Mariani, G. G. Zilliac, J. S. Chow, and P. Bradshaw.
Numerical/Experimental Study of a Wingtip Vortex in the Near Field.
AIAA Journal, 33(9):1561-1568, 1995.

66    J. M. Dalla Valle.
Pitman, London, 1948.

67    B. J. Daly and F. H. Harlow.
Transport Equations in Turbulence.
Phys. Fluids, 13:2634-2649, 1970.

68    J. F. Daunenhofer and J. R. Baron.
Grid Adaption for the 2D Euler Equations.
Technical Report AIAA-85-0484, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1985.

69    G. G. De Soete.
Overall Reaction Rates of NO and N $_2$ Formation from Fuel Nitrogen.
In 15th Symp. (Int'l.) on Combustion, pages 1093-1102. The Combustion Institute, 1975.

70    M. K. Denison and B. W. Webb.
A Spectral Line-Based Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases Model for Arbitrary RTE Solvers.
J. Heat Transfer, 115:1002-1012, 1993.

71    J. Ding and D. Gidaspow.
A Bubbling Fluidization Model Using Kinetic Theory of Granular Flow.
AIChE J., 36(4):523-538, 1990.

72    G. Dixon-Lewis.
Structure of Laminar Flames.
In 23rd Symp. (Int'l.) on Combustion, pages 305-324. The Combustion Institute, 1990.

73    N. Dombrowski and P. C. Hooper.
The effect of ambient density or drop formation in sprays.
Chemical Engineering Science, 17:291-305, 1962.

74    N. Dombrowski and W. R. Johns.
The aerodynamic Instability and Disintegration of Viscous Liquid Sheets.
Chemical Engineering Science, 18:203, 1963.

75    C. Dopazo and E. E. O'Brien.
Functional formulation of nonisothermal turbulent reactive flows.
Phys. Fluids, 17:1968, 1975.

76    A. M. Douaud and P. Eyzat.
Four-Octane-Number Method for Predicting the Anti-Knock Behavior of Fuels in Engines.
SAE Technical Paper, v87 780080, SAE, 1978.

77    M. C. Drake and R. J. Blint.
Relative Importance of Nitrogen Oxide Formation Mechanisms in Laminar Opposed-Flow Diffusion Flames.
Combustion and Flame, 83:185-203, 1991.

78    M. C. Drake, S. M. Correa, R. W. Pitz, W. Shyy, and C. P. Fenimore.
Superequilibrium and Thermal Nitric Oxide Formation in Turbulent Diffusion Flames.
Combustion and Flame, 69:347-365, 1987.

79    M. C. Drake, R. W. Pitz, M. Lapp, C. P. Fenimore, R. P. Lucht, D. W. Sweeney, and N. M. Laurendeau.
In 20th Symp. (Int'l.) on Combustion, page 327. The Combustion Institute, 1984.

80    D. A. Drew and R. T. Lahey.
In Particulate Two-Phase Flow, pages 509-566. Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston, 1993.

81    J. K. Dukowwicz and A. S. Dvinsky.
Approximate Factorization as a High-Order Splitting for the Implicit Incompressible Flow Equations.
Journal of Computational Physics, 102:336-347, 1992.

82    P. A. Durbin.
Separated Flow Computations with the $k$- $\epsilon$- $v^2$ Model.
AIAA Journal, 33(4):659-664, 1995.

83    E. R. G. Eckert and R. M. Drake.
Analysis of Heat and Mass Transfer.
McGraw-Hill Co., 1972.

84    D. K. Edwards and R. Matavosian.
Scaling Rules for Total Absorptivity and Emissivity of Gases.
J. Heat Transfer, 106:684-689, 1984.

85    J. K. Edwards, B. S. McLaury, and S. A. Shirazi.
Supplementing a CFD Code with Erosion Prediction Capabilities.
In Proceedings of ASME FEDSM'98: ASME 1998 Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting, Washington DC, June 1998.

86    J. K. Edwards, B. S. McLaury, and S. A. Shirazi.
Evaluation of Alternative Pipe Bend Fittings in Erosive Service.
In Proceedings of ASME FEDSM'00: ASME 2000 Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting, Boston, June 2000.

87    S. E. Elgobashi and T. W. Abou-Arab.
A Two-Equation Turbulence Model for Two-Phase Flows.
Phys. Fluids, 26(4):931-938, 1983.

88    S. Ergun.
Fluid Flow through Packed Columns.
Chem. Eng. Prog., 48(2):89-94, 1952.

89    G. Erlebacher, M. Y. Hussaini, C. G. Speziale, and T. A. Zang.
Toward the Large-Eddy Simulation of Compressible Turbulent Flows.
J. Fluid Mech., 238:155-185, 1992.

90    R. F. Fedors and R. F. Landell.
An Empirical Method of Estimating the Void Fraction in Mixtures of Uniform Particles of Different Size.
Powder Technology, 23:225-231.

91    C. P. Fenimore.
Formation of Nitric Oxide in Premixed Hydrocarbon Flames.
In 13th Symp. (Int'l.) on Combustion, page 373. The Combustion Institute, 1971.

92    C. P. Fenimore.
Destruction of NO by NH $_3$ in Lean Burnt Gas.
Combustion and Flame, 37:245, 1980.

93    C. P. Fenimore and G. W. Jones.
Oxidation of soot by hydroxyl radicals.
J. Phys. Chem., 71:593-597, 1967.

94    J. L. Ferzieger and M. Peric.
Computational Methods for Fluid Dynamics.
Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1996.

95    J. E. Ffowcs-Williams and D. L. Hawkings.
Sound Generation by Turbulence and Surfaces in Arbitrary Motion.
Proc. Roy. Soc. London, A264:321-342, 1969.

96    M. A. Field.
Rate of Combustion Of Size-Graded Fractions of Char from a Low Rank Coal between 1200 K-2000 K.
Combustion and Flame, 13:237-252, 1969.

97    I. Finnie.
Erosion of Surfaces by Solid Particles.
Wear, 3:87-103, 1960.

98    W. A. Fiveland and A. S. Jamaluddin.
Three-Dimensional Spectral Radiative Heat Transfer Solutions by the Discrete Ordinates Method.
HTD Vol. 106, Heat Transfer Phenomena in Radiation, Combustion and Fires, pp. 43-48, 1989.

99    T. H. Fletcher and D. R. Hardesty.
Compilation of Sandia coal devolatilization data: Milestone report.
Sandia Report SAND92-8209, 1992.

100    T. H. Fletcher and A. R. Kerstein.
Chemical percolation model for devolatilization: 3. Direct use of $^{13}$C NMR data to predict effects of coal type.
Energy and Fuels, 6:414, 1992.

101    T. H. Fletcher, A. R. Kerstein, R. J. Pugmire, and D. M. Grant.
Chemical percolation model for devolatilization: 2. Temperature and heating rate effects on product yields.
Energy and Fuels, 4:54, 1990.

102    W. L. Flower, R. K. Hanson, and C. H. Kruger.
In 15th Symp. (Int'l.) on Combustion, page 823. The Combustion Institute, 1975.

103    R. O. Fox.
Computational Models for Turbulent Reacting Flows.
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 2003.

104    S. Fu, B. E. Launder, and M. A. Leschziner.
Modeling Strongly Swirling Recirculating Jet Flow with Reynolds-Stress Transport Closures.
In Sixth Symposium on Turbulent Shear Flows, Toulouse, France, 1987.

105    J. Garside and M. R. Al-Dibouni.
Velocity-Voidage Relationships for Fluidization and Sedimentation.
I & EC Process Des. Dev., 16:206-214, 1977.

106    M. Germano, U. Piomelli, P. Moin, and W. H. Cabot.
Dynamic Subgrid-Scale Eddy Viscosity Model.
In Summer Workshop, Center for Turbulence Research, Stanford, CA, 1996.

107    T. Gessner.
Dynamic Mesh Adaption for Supersonic Combustion Waves Modeled with Detailed Reaction Mechanisms.
PhD thesis, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany, 2001.

108    M. M. Gibson and B. E. Launder.
Ground Effects on Pressure Fluctuations in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer.
J. Fluid Mech., 86:491-511, 1978.

109    D. Gidaspow.
Multiphase Flow and Fluidization.
Academic Press, Boston, 1994.

110    D. Gidaspow, R. Bezburuah, and J. Ding.
Hydrodynamics of Circulating Fluidized Beds, Kinetic Theory Approach.
In Fluidization VII, Proceedings of the 7th Engineering Foundation Conference on Fluidization, pages 75-82, 1992.

111    R. G. Gilbert, K. Luther, and J. Troe.
Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem., 87, 1983.

112    P. Glarborg, J. E. Johnsson, and K. Dam-Johansen.
Kinetics of Homogeneous Nitrous Oxide Decomposition.
Combustion and Flame, 99:523-532, 1994.

113    M. E. Goldstein and B. Rosenbaum.
Effect of Anisotropic Turbulence on Aerodynamic Noise.
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 54:630-645, 1973.

114    J. Gottgens, F. Mauss, and N. Peters.
Analytic Approximations of Burning Velocities and Flame Thicknesses of Lean Hydrogen, Methane, Ethylene, Ethane, Acetylene and Propane Flames.
In Twenty-Fourth Symposium (Int.) on Combustion, pages 129-135, Pittsburgh, 1992.

115    I. R. Gran and B. F. Magnussen.
A numerical study of a bluff-body stabilized diffusion flame. part 2. influence of combustion modeling and finite-rate chemistry.
Combustion Science and Technology, 119:191, 1996.

116    D. M. Grant, R. J. Pugmire, T. H. Fletcher, and A. R. Kerstein.
Chemical percolation model of coal devolatilization using percolation lattice statistics.
Energy and Fuels, 3:175, 1989.

117    D. J. Gunn.
Transfer of Heat or Mass to Particles in Fixed and Fluidized Beds.
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 21:467-476, 1978.

118    W. W. Hagerty and J. F. Shea.
A Study of the Stability of Plane Fluid Sheets.
Journal of Applied Mechanics, 22:509, 1955.

119    A. Haider and O. Levenspiel.
Drag Coefficient and Terminal Velocity of Spherical and Nonspherical Particles.
Powder Technology, 58:63-70, 1989.

120    R. J. Hall, M. D. Smooke, and M. B. Colket.
Physical and Chemical Aspects of Combustion.
Gordon and Breach, 1997.

121    M. P. Halstead, L. J. Kirsch, and C. P. Quinn.
Autoignition of Hydrocarbon Fuels at High Temperatures and Pressures - Fitting of a Mathematical Model.
Combustion and Flame, 30:45-60, 1977.

122    Z. Han, S. Perrish, P. V. Farrell, and R. D. Reitz.
Modeling Atomization Processes of Pressure-Swirl Hollow-Cone Fuel Sprays.
Atomization and Sprays, 7(6):663-684, Nov.-Dec. 1997.

123    G. Hand, M. Missaghi, M. Pourkashanian, and A. Williams.
Experimental Studies and Computer Modelling of Nitrogen Oxides in a Cylindrical Furnace.
In Proceedings of the Ninth Members Conference, volume 2. IFRF Doc No K21/g/30, 1989.

124    R. K. Hanson and S. Salimian.
Survey of Rate Constants in H/N/O Systems.
In W. C. Gardiner, editor, Combustion Chemistry, page 361, 1984.

125    H. O. Hardenburg and F. W. Hase.
An Empirical Formula for Computing the Pressure Rise Delay of a Fuel from its Cetane Number and from the Relevant Parameters of Direct Injection Diesel Engines.
SAE Technical Paper 790493, SAE, 1979.

126    K. Haugen, O. Kvernvold, A. Ronald, and R. Sandberg.
Sand Erosion of Wear-resistant Materials: Erosion in Choke Valves.
Wear, 186-187:179-188, 1995.

127    R. A. W. M. Henkes, F. F. van der Flugt, and C. J. Hoogendoorn.
Natural Convection Flow in a Square Cavity Calculated with Low-Reynolds-Number Turbulence Models.
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 34:1543-1557, 1991.

128    J. B. Heywood.
Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals.
McGraw-Hill, New York, rev. edition, 1988.

129    T. Hibiki and M. Ishii.
One-group Interfacial Area Transport of Bubbly Flows in Vertical Round Tubes.
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 43:2711-2726, 2000.

130    J. O. Hinze.
McGraw-Hill Publishing Co., New York, 1975.

131    C. W. Hirt and B. D. Nichols.
Volume of Fluid (VOF) Method for the Dynamics of Free Boundaries.
J. Comput. Phys., 39:201-225, 1981.

132    D. G. Holmes and S. D. Connell.
Solution of the 2D Navier-Stokes Equations on Unstructured Adaptive Grids.
Presented at the AIAA 9th Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference, June, 1989.

133    T. J. Houser, M. Hull, R. Alway, and T. Biftu.
Int. Journal of Chem. Kinet., 12:579, 1980.

134    P. Huang, P. Bradshaw, and T. Coakley.
Skin Friction and Velocity Profile Family for Compressible Turbulent Boundary Layers.
AIAA Journal, 31(9):1600-1604, September 1993.

135    S. C. Hunter.
Formation of so3 in gas turbines.
Transactions of the ASME, 104:44-51, 1982.

136    B. R. Hutchinson and G. D. Raithby.
A Multigrid Method Based on the Additive Correction Strategy.
Numerical Heat Transfer, 9:511-537, 1986.

137    H. Ibdir and H. Arastoopour.
Modeling of multi-type particle flow using kinetic approach.
AICHE Journal, May 2005.

138    K. Ishazaki, T. Ikohagi, and H. Daiguji.
A High-Resolution Numerical Method for Transonic Non-equilibrium Condensation Flows Through a Steam Turbine Cascade.
In Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Computational Fluid Dynamics, volume 1, pages 479-484, 1995.

139    M. Ishii and S. Kim.
Micro Four-Sensor Probe Measurement of Interfacial Area Transport for Bubbly Flow in Round Pipes.
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 205:123-131, 2001.

140    R. I. Issa.
Solution of the Implicitly Discretized Fluid Flow Equations by Operator-Splitting.
Journal of Computational Physics, 62:40-65, 1985.

141    R. I. Issa.
Solution of Implicitly Discretized Fluid Flow Equations by Operator Splitting.
J. Comput. Phys., 62:40-65, 1986.

142    H. M. Glaz J. B. Bell, P. Colella.
Second-Order Projection Method for the Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations.
Journal of Computational Physics, 85:257, 1989.

143    H. M. Glaz J. B. Bell, P. Colella.
An Analysis of the Fractional-Step Method.
Journal of Computational Physics, 108:51-58, 1993.

144    S. Jain.
Three-Dimensional Simulation of Turbulent Particle Dispersion.
PhD thesis, University of Utah, Utah, 1995.

145    A. Jameson.
Solution of the Euler Equations for Two Dimensional Transonic Flow by a Multigrid Method.
MAE Report 1613, Princeton University, June 1983.

146    A. Jameson, W. Schmidt, and E. Turkel.
Numerical Solution of the Euler Equations by Finite Volume Methods Using Runge-Kutta Time-Stepping Schemes.
Technical Report AIAA-81-1259, AIAA 14th Fluid and Plasma Dynamics Conference, Palo Alto, California, June 1981.

147    J. Janicka, W. Kolbe, and W. Kollmann.
Closure of the transport equation for the pdf of turbulent scalar fields.
Journal Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics, 4:47, 1978.

148    J. Janicka and W. Kollmann.
A Two-Variable Formulation for the Treatment of Chemical Reactions in Turbulent H $_2$-Air Diffusion Flames.
In 17th Symp. (Int'l.) on Combustion. The Combustion Institute, 1978.

149    J. Janicka and W. Kollmann.
A Numerical Study of Oscillating Flow Around a Circular Cylinder.
Combustion and Flame, 44:319-336, 1982.

150    C. Jayatillaka.
The Influence of Prandtl Number and Surface Roughness on the Resistance of the Laminar Sublayer to Momentum and Heat Transfer.
Prog. Heat Mass Transfer, 1:193-321, 1969.

151    P. C. Johnson and R. Jackson.
Frictional-Collisional Constitutive Relations for Granular Materials, with Application to Plane Shearing.
J. Fluid Mech., 176:67-93, 1987.

152    W. P. Jones and J. H. Whitelaw.
Calculation Methods for Reacting Turbulent Flows: A Review.
Combustion and Flame, 48:1-26, 1982.

153    T. Jongen.
Simulation and Modeling of Turbulent Incompressible Flows.
PhD thesis, EPF Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, 1992.

154    T. Just and S. Kelm.
Die Industry, 38:76, 1986.

155    B. Kader.
Temperature and Concentration Profiles in Fully Turbulent Boundary Layers.
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 24(9):1541-1544, 1981.

156    N. Kandamby, G. Lazopoulos, F. C. Lockwood, A. Perera, and L. Vigevano.
Mathematical Modeling of NOx Emission Reduction by the Use of Reburn Technology in Utility Boilers.
In ASME Int. Joint Power Generation Conference and Exhibition, Houston, Texas, 1996.

157    K. C. Karki and S. V. Patankar.
Pressure-Based Calculation Procedure for Viscous Flows at All Speeds in Arbitrary Configurations.
AIAA Journal, 27:1167-1174, 1989.

158    W. M. Kays.
Loss coefficients for abrupt changes in flow cross section with low reynolds number flow in single and multiple tube systems.
Transactions of the ASME, 72:1067-1074, January 1950.

159    W. M. Kays.
Turbulent Prandtl Number - Where Are We?
J. Heat Transfer, 116:284-295, 1994.

160    W. M. Kays and A. L. London.
Compact Heat Exchangers.
McGraw-Hill, New York, 1964.

161    R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, C. Wang, O. Adigun, W. G. Houf, C. P. Chou, S. F. Miller, P. Ho, and D. J. Young.
CHEMKIN v. 4.0.
Technical Report San Diego, CA, Reaction Design, Inc., 2004.

162    I. M. Khan and G. Greeves.
A Method for Calculating the Formation and Combustion of Soot in Diesel Engines.
In N. H. Afgan and J. M. Beer, editors, Heat Transfer in Flames, chapter 25. Scripta, Washington DC, 1974.

163    J. S. Kim and F. A. Williams.
Extinction of Diffusion Flames with Non-Unity Lewis Number.
Eng. Math, 31:101-118, 1997.

164    S. Kim, D. Caraeni, and B. Makarov.
A Multidimensional Linear Reconstruction Scheme for Arbitrary Unstructured Grids.
Technical report, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, AIAA 16th Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference, Orlando, Florida, June 2003.

165    S.-E. Kim.
Large eddy simulation using unstructured meshes and dynamic subgrid-scale turbulence models.
Technical Report AIAA-2004-2548, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 34th Fluid Dynamics Conference and Exhibit, June 2004.

166    S.-E. Kim and D. Choudhury.
A Near-Wall Treatment Using Wall Functions Sensitized to Pressure Gradient.
In ASME FED Vol. 217, Separated and Complex Flows. ASME, 1995.

167    S.-E. Kim, D. Choudhury, and B. Patel.
Computations of Complex Turbulent Flows Using the Commercial Code ANSYS FLUENT.
In Proceedings of the ICASE/LaRC/AFOSR Symposium on Modeling Complex Turbulent Flows, Hampton, Virginia, 1997.

168    W.-W. Kim and S. Menon.
Application of the localized dynamic subgrid-scale model to turbulent wall-bounded flows.
Technical Report AIAA-97-0210, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 35th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, NV, January 1997.

169    H. Kobayashi, J. B. Howard, and A. F. Sarofim.
Coal Devolatilization at High Temperatures.
In 16th Symp. (Int'l.) on Combustion. The Combustion Institute, 1976.

170    N.I. Kolev.
Multiphase Flow Dynamics 2: Thermal and Mechanical Interactions.
Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2nd edition edition, 20051994.

171    R. Kraichnan.
Diffusion by a Random Velocity Field.
Physics of Fluids, 11:21-31, 1970.

172    J. C. Kramlich.
The Fate and Behavior of Fuel-Sulfur in Combustion Systems.
PhD thesis, Washington State University, Washington, USA, 1980.

173    K. K. Y. Kuo.
Principles of Combustion.
John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1986.

174    H. Lamb.
Hydrodynamics, Sixth Edition.
Dover Publications, New York, 1945.

175    M. E. Larsen and J. R. Howell.
Least Squares Smoothing of Direct Exchange Areas in Zonal Analysis.
J. Heat Transfer, 108:239-242, 1986.

176    B. E. Launder.
Second-Moment Closure and Its Use in Modeling Turbulent Industrial Flows.
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, 9:963-985, 1989.

177    B. E. Launder.
Second-Moment Closure: Present... and Future?
Inter. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 10(4):282-300, 1989.

178    B. E. Launder, G. J. Reece, and W. Rodi.
Progress in the Development of a Reynolds-Stress Turbulence Closure.
J. Fluid Mech., 68(3):537-566, April 1975.

179    B. E. Launder and N. Shima.
Second-Moment Closure for the Near-Wall Sublayer: Development and Application.
AIAA Journal, 27(10):1319-1325, 1989.

180    B. E. Launder and D. B. Spalding.
Lectures in Mathematical Models of Turbulence.
Academic Press, London, England, 1972.

181    B. E. Launder and D. B. Spalding.
The Numerical Computation of Turbulent Flows.
Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 3:269-289, 1974.

182    N. M. Laurendeau.
Heterogeneous Kinetics of Coal Char Gasification and Combustion.
Prog. Energy Comb. Sci., 4:221-270, 1978.

183    J. L. Lebowitz.
Exact Solution of Generalized Percus-Yevick Equation for a Mixture of Hard Spheres.
The Phy. Rev., 133(4A):A895-A899, 1964.

184    K. B. Lee, M. W. Thring, and J. M. Beer.
Combustion and Flame, 6:137-145, 1962.

185    W.H. Lee.
A Pressure Iteration Scheme for Two-Phase Modeling.
Technical Report LA-UR 79-975, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 1979.

186    A. H. Lefebvre.
Atomization and Sprays.
Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, 1989.

187    B. P. Leonard.
The ULTIMATE conservative difference scheme applied to unsteady one-dimensional advection.
Comp. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng., 88:17-74, 1991.

188    B. P. Leonard and S. Mokhtari.
ULTRA-SHARP Nonoscillatory Convection Schemes for High-Speed Steady Multidimensional Flow.
NASA TM 1-2568 (ICOMP-90-12), NASA Lewis Research Center, 1990.

189    K. M. Leung and R. P. Lindsted.
Detailed Kinetic Modeling of C1-C3 Alkane Diffusion Flames.
Combustion and Flame, 102:129-160, 1995.

190    J. M. Levy, L. K. Chen, A. F. Sarofim, and J. M. Beer.
NO/Char Reactions at Pulverized Coal Flame Conditions.
In 18th Symp. (Int'l.) on Combustion. The Combustion Institute, 1981.

191    A. Li and G. Ahmadi.
Dispersion and Deposition of Spherical Particles from Point Sources in a Turbulent Channel Flow.
Aerosol Science and Technology, 16:209-226, 1992.

192    X. Li and R. S. Tankin.
On the Temporal Instability of a Two-Dimensional Viscous Liquid Sheet.
Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 226:425, 1991.

193    A. K. Lichtarowicz, R. K. Duggins, and E. Markland.
Discharge Coefficients for Incompressible Non-Cavitating Flow Through Long Orifices.
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, 7:2, 1965.

194    F. S. Lien and M. A. Leschziner.
Assessment of Turbulent Transport Models Including Non-Linear RNG Eddy-Viscosity Formulation and Second-Moment Closure.
Computers and Fluids, 23(8):983-1004, 1994.

195    M. J. Lighthill.
On Sound Generated Aerodynamically.
Proc. Roy. Soc. London, A211:564-587, 1952.

196    G. M. Lilley.
The radiated noise from isotropic turbulence revisited.
NASA Contract Report 93-75, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, 1993.

197    D. K. Lilly.
A Proposed Modification of the Germano Subgrid-Scale Closure Model.
Physics of Fluids, 4:633-635, 1992.

198    F. Lindemann.
Trans. Faraday Soc., 7, 1922.

199    R. P. Lindstedt.
In Proc. IUTAM Conf. on Aerothermo-Chemistry in Combustion, Taipei, Taiwan, 1991.

200    R. P. Lindstedt.
Soot Formation in Combustion.
Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994.

201    M. S. Liou.
A sequel to AUSM: AUSM+.
Journal of Computational Physics, 129:364-382, 1996.

202    M. S. Liou and C. J. Steffen, Jr.
A new flux splitting scheme.
Journal of Computational Physics, 107(1):23-39, 1993.

203    A. N. Lipatnikov and J. Chomiak.
Turbulent Flame Speed and Thickness: Phenomenology, Evaluation and Application in Multi-dimensional Simulations.
Progress in Energy & Combustion Science, 28:1-74, January 2002.

204    R. J. Litchford and S. M. Jeng.
Efficient Statistical Transport Model for Turbulent Particle Dispersion in Sprays.
AIAA Journal, 29:1443, 1991.

205    A. B. Liu, D. Mather, and R. D. Reitz.
Modeling the Effects of Drop Drag and Breakup on Fuel Sprays.
SAE Technical Paper 930072, SAE, 1993.

206    H. Liu and B. M. Gibbs.
Modeling of NO and N $_2$O Emissions from Biomass-Fired Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustors.
Fuel, 81:271-280, 2002.

207    F. C. Lockwood and C. A. Romo-Millanes.
Mathematical Modelling of Fuel - NO Emissions From PF Burners.
J. Int. Energy, 65:144-152, September 1992.

208    C. K. K. Lun, S. B. Savage, D. J. Jeffrey, and N. Chepurniy.
Kinetic Theories for Granular Flow: Inelastic Particles in Couette Flow and Slightly Inelastic Particles in a General Flow Field.
J. Fluid Mech., 140:223-256, 1984.

209    J. Y. Luo, R. I. Issa, and A. D. Gosman.
Prediction of Impeller-Induced Flows in Mixing Vessels Using Multiple Frames of Reference.
In IChemE Symposium Series, number 136, pages 549-556, 1994.

210    A. E. Lutz, R. J. Kee, J. F. Grcar, and F. M. Rupley.
OPPDIF: A FORTRAN Program for Computing Opposed-Flow Diffusion Flames.
Sandia National Laboratories Report SAND96-8243, 1997.

211    J. F. Lynn.
Multigrid Solution of the Euler Equations with Local Preconditioning.
PhD thesis, University of Michigan, 1995.

212    R. K. Lyon.
The NH $_3$-NO-O $_2$ Reaction.
Int. Journal of Chem. Kinetics, 8:315-318, 1976.

213    D. Ma and G. Ahmadi.
A Thermodynamical Formulation for Dispersed Multiphase Turbulent Flows.
Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 16:323-351, 1990.

214    J. Ma.
Soot Formation and Soot Secondary Reactions During Coal Pyrolysis.
PhD thesis, Brigham Young University, Utah, USA, 1996.

215    B. F. Magnussen.
On the Structure of Turbulence and a Generalized Eddy Dissipation Concept for Chemical Reaction in Turbulent Flow.
Nineteeth AIAA Meeting, St. Louis, 1981.

216    B. F. Magnussen and B. H. Hjertager.
On mathematical models of turbulent combustion with special emphasis on soot formation and combustion.
In 16th Symp. (Int'l.) on Combustion. The Combustion Institute, 1976.

217    M. Manninen, V. Taivassalo, and S. Kallio.
On the mixture model for multiphase flow.
VTT Publications 288, Technical Research Centre of Finland, 1996.

218    D. L. Marchisio and R. O. Fox.
Solution of Population Balance Equations Using the Direct Quadrature Method of Moments.
Aerosol Science and Technology, 36:43-73, 2005.

219    F. Mathey, D. Cokljat, J. P. Bertoglio, and E. Sergent.
Specification of LES Inlet Boundary Condition Using Vortex Method.
In K. Hanjali \textrm{\'{c\/}}, Y. Nagano, and M. Tummers, editors, 4th International Symposium on Turbulence, Heat and Mass Transfer, Antalya, Turkey, 2003. Begell House, Inc.

220    S. R. Mathur and J. Y. Murthy.
Coupled ordinates method for multigrid acceleration of radiation calculations.
J. of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer, 13(4):467-473, 1999.

221    B. S. McLaury, J. Wang, S. A. Shirazi, J. R. Shadley, and E. F. Rybicki.
Solid Particle Erosion in Long Radius Elbows and Straight Pipes.
SPE Paper 38842, SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, II Production Operations and Engineering/General, San Antonio, Texas, October 1997.

222    P. C. Melte and D. T. Pratt.
Measurement of Atomic Oxygen and Nitrogen Oxides in Jet Stirred Combustion.
In 15th Symposium (Int'l) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, pages 1061-1070, 1974.

223    C. Meneveau and T. Poinsot.
Stretching and Quenching of Flamelets in Premixed Turbulent Combustion.
Combustion and Flame, 86:311-332, 1991.

224    F. R. Menter.
Two-Equation Eddy-Viscosity Turbulence Models for Engineering Applications.
AIAA Journal, 32(8):1598-1605, August 1994.

225    F. R. Menter, M. Kuntz, and R. Langtry.
Ten Years of Experience with the SST Turbulence Model.
In K. Hanjalic, Y. Nagano, and M. Tummers, editors, Turbulence, Heat and Mass Transfer 4, pages 625-632. Begell House Inc., 2003.

226    F. R. Menter, R. B. Langtry, S. R. Likki, Y. B. Suzen, P. G. Huang, and S. Volker.
A Correlation Based Transition Model Using Local Variables Part 1 - Model Formulation.
(ASME-GT2004-53452), 2004.

227    M. Metghalchi and J. C. Keck.
Burning velocities of mixtures of air with methanol, isooctane and indolene at high pressures and temperatures.
Combustion and Flame, 48:191-210, 1982.

228    J. A. Miller and C. T. Bowman.
Mechanism and Modeling of Nitrogen Chemistry in Combustion.
Prog. in Energy and Comb. Sci., 15:287-338, 1989.

229    J. A. Miller, M. C. Branch, W. J. McLean, D. W. Chandler, M. D. Smooke, and R. J. Kee.
In 20th Symp. (Int'l.) on Combustion, page 673. The Combustion Institute, 1985.

230    J. A. Miller and G. A. Fisk.
Chemical and Engineering News, 31, 1987.

231    M. Missaghi.
Mathematical Modelling of Chemical Sources in Turbulent Combustion.
PhD thesis, The University of Leeds, England, 1987.

232    M. Missaghi, M. Pourkashanian, A. Williams, and L. Yap.
In Proceedings of American Flame Days Conference, USA, 1990.

233    M. F. Modest.
The Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases Model for Arbitrary Solution Methods in Radiative Transfer.
J. Heat Transfer, 113:650-656, 1991.

234    M. F. Modest.
Radiative Heat Transfer.
Series in Mechanical Engineering. McGraw-Hill, 1993.

235    L. J. Molero de Blas.
Pollutant Formation and Interaction in the Combustion of Heavy Liquid Fuels.
PhD thesis, University of London, London, England, 1998.

236    J. P. Monat, R. K. Hanson, and C. H. Kruger.
In 17th Symp. (Int'l.) on Combustion, page 543. The Combustion Institute, 1979.

237    M. J. Moore and C. H. Sieverding.
Two-Phase Steam Flow in Turbines and Separator.
McGraw-Hill, 1976.

238    S. A. Morsi and A. J. Alexander.
An Investigation of Particle Trajectories in Two-Phase Flow Systems.
J. Fluid Mech., 55(2):193-208, September 26 1972.

239    J. B. Moss, S. A. L. Perera, C. D. Stewart, and M. Makida.
Radiation Heat Transfer in Gas Turbine Combustors.
In Proc. 16th (Int'l.) Symp. on Airbreathing Engines, Cleveland, OH, 2003.

240    C. M. Muller, H. Breitbach, and N. Peters.
Partially Premixed Turbulent Flame Propagation in Jet Flames.
Technical report, 25th Symposium (Int) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, 1994.

241    C. Mundo, M. Sommerfeld, and C. Tropea.
Droplet-Wall Collisions: Experimental Studies of the Deformation and Breakup Process.
International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 21(2):151-173, 1995.

242    J. Y. Murthy and S. R. Mathur.
A Finite Volume Method For Radiative Heat Transfer Using Unstructured Meshes.
AIAA-98-0860, January 1998.

243    S. Muzaferija, M. Peric, P. Sames, and T. Schellin.
A Two-Fluid Navier-Stokes Solver to Simulate Water Entry.
In Proc 22nd Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics, pages 277-289, Washington, DC, 1998.

244    J. D. Naber and R. D. Reitz.
Modeling Engine Spray/Wall Impingement.
Technical Report 880107, Society of Automotive Engineers, General Motors Research Laboratories, Warren, MI, 1988.

245    M. Namazian and J. B. Heywood.
Flow in the Piston Cylinder Ring Crevices of a Spark Ignition Engine: Effect on Hydrocarbon Emissions, Efficiency, and Power.
SAE Technical Paper 820088, SAE, 1982.

246    I. Naruse, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Itoh, and K. Ohtake.
Fundamental Study on N $_2$O Formation/Decomposition Characteristics by Means of Low-Temperature Pulverized Coal Combustion.
In 26th Symposium (Int'l) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, pages 3213-3221, 1996.

247    P. F. Nelson, A. N. Buckley, and M. D. Kelly.
Functional Forms of Nitrogen in Coals and the Release of Coal Nitrogen as NOx Precursors (HCN and NH $_3$).
In 24th Symposium (Int'l) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, page 1259, 1992.

248    F. Nicoud and F. Ducros.
Subgrid-Scale Stress Modelling Based on the Square of the Velocity Gradient Tensor.
Flow, Turbulence, and Combustion, 62(3):183-200, 1999.

249    L. Nokleberg and T. Sontvedt.
Erosion of Oil and Gas Industry Choke Valves Using Computational Fluid Dynamics and Experiment.
International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, 19:636-643, 1998.

250    P. A. Nooren, H. A. Wouters, T. W. J. Peeters, D. Roekaerts, U. Maas, and D. Schmidt.
Monte carlo pdf modeling of a turbulent natural-gas diffusion flame.
Combustion Theory and Modeling, 1:79-96, 1997.

251    J. Norman, M. Porkashanian, and A. Williams.
Modelling the Formation and Emission of Environmentally Unfriendly Coal Species in Some Gasification Processes.
Fuel, 76(13):1201-1216, October 1997.

252    W. H. Nurick.
Orifice Cavitation and Its Effects on Spray Mixing.
Journal of Fluids Engineering, page 98, 1976.

253    R. Ocone, S. Sundaresan, and R. Jackson.
Gas-particle flow in a duct of arbitrary inclination with particle-particle interaction.
AIChE J., 39:1261-1271, 1993.

254    S. Ogawa, A. Umemura, and N. Oshima.
On the Equation of Fully Fluidized Granular Materials.
J. Appl. Math. Phys., 31:483, 1980.

255    P. J. O'Rourke.
Collective Drop Effects on Vaporizing Liquid Sprays.
PhD thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, 1981.

256    P. J. O'Rourke and A. A. Amsden.
The TAB Method for Numerical Calculation of Spray Droplet Breakup.
SAE Technical Paper 872089, SAE, 1987.

257    P. J. O'Rourke and A. A. Amsden.
A Particle Numerical Model for Wall Film Dynamics in Port-Fuel Injected Engines.
SAE Paper 961961, 1996.

258    P. J. O'Rourke and A. A. Amsden.
A Spray/Wall Interaction Submodel for the KIVA-3 Wall Film Model.
SAE Paper 2000-01-0271, 2000.

259    S.A. Orszag, V. Yakhot, W.S. Flannery, F. Boysan, D. Choudhury, J. Maruzewski, and B. Patel.
Renormalization Group Modeling and Turbulence Simulations.
In International Conference on Near-Wall Turbulent Flows, Tempe, Arizona, 1993.

260    M. Ostberg and K. Dam-Johansen.
Empirical Modeling of the Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction of NO: Comparison with Large-Scale Experiments and Detailed Kinetic Modeling.
Chem. Engineering Science, 49(12):1897-1904, 1994.

261    H. Ounis, G. Ahmadi, and J. B. McLaughlin.
Brownian Diffusion of Submicrometer Particles in the Viscous Sublayer.
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 143(1):266-277, 1991.

262    M. N. Ozisik.
Radiative Transfer and Interactions with Conduction and Convection.
Wiley, New York, 1973.

263    S. A. Pandya, S. Venkateswaran, and T. H. Pulliam.
Implementation of dual-time procedures in overflow.
Technical Report AIAA-2003-0072, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2003.

264    S. V. Patankar.
Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow.
Hemisphere, Washington, DC, 1980.

265    D.Y. Peng and D.B. Robinson.
A New Two-Constant Equation of State.
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry: Fundamentals, 15:59-64, 1976.

266    R. H. Perry, D. W. Gree, and J. O. Maloney.
Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook.
McGraw-Hill, New York, 6th edition, 1984.

267    N. Peters.
Laminar Diffusion Flamelet Models in Non Premixed Combustion.
Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 10:319-339, 1984.

268    N. Peters.
Laminar Flamelet Concepts in Turbulent Combustion.
In 21st Symp. (Int'l.) on Combustion, pages 1231-1250. The Combustion Institute, 1986.

269    N. Peters and S. Donnerhack.
In 18th Symp. (Int'l.) on Combustion, page 33. The Combustion Institute, 1981.

270    N. Peters and B. Rogg.
Reduced Kinetic Mechanisms for Applications in Combustion Systems.
In Lecture Notes in Physics, volume m15. Springer-Verlag, 1992.

271    K. K. Pillai.
The Influence of Coal Type on Devolatilization and Combustion in Fluidized Beds.
J. Inst. Energy, page 142, 1981.

272    H. Pitsch, H. Barths, and N. Peters.
Three-Dimensional Modeling of NOx and Soot Formation in DI-Diesel Engines Using Detailed Chemistry Based on the Interactive Flamelet Approach.
SAE Paper 962057, SAE, 1996.

273    H. Pitsch and N. Peters.
A Consistent Flamelet Formulation for Non-Premixed Combustion Considering Differential Diffusion Effects.
Combustion and Flame, 114:26-40, 1998.

274    T. Poinsot and D. Veynante.
Theoretical and Numerical Combustion.
McGraw-Hill, New York, 2001.

275    B.E. Poling, J.M. Prausnitz, and J.P. O’Connell.
The properties of Gases and Liquids.
McGraw-Hill, New York, 5th edition, 2001.

276    S. B. Pope.
Pdf methods for turbulent reactive flows.
Progress Energy Combustion Science, 11:119, 1985.

277    S. B. Pope.
Computationally efficient implementation of combustion chemistry using in-situ adaptive tabulation.
Combustion Theory and Modeling, 1:41-63, 1997.

278    S. B. Pope.
Turbulent Flows.
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 2000.

279    B. Popoff and M. Braun.
A Lagrangian Approach to Dense Particulate Flows.
In International Conference on Multiphase Flow, Leipzig, Germany, 2007.

280    I. Proudman.
The Generation of Noise by Isotropic Turbulence.
Proc. Roy. Soc., A214:119, 1952.

281    S.Kim Q. Wu and M. Ishii.
One-group Interfacial Area Transport in Vertical Bubbly Flow.
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 41:1103-1112, 1997.

282    G. D. Raithby and E. H. Chui.
A Finite-Volume Method for Predicting a Radiant Heat Transfer in Enclosures with Participating Media.
J. Heat Transfer, 112:415-423, 1990.

283    W. E. Ranz.
Some Experiments on Orifice Sprays.
Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, page 175, 1958.

284    W. E. Ranz and W. R. Marshall, Jr.
Evaporation from Drops, Part I.
Chem. Eng. Prog., 48(3):141-146, March 1952.

285    W. E. Ranz and W. R. Marshall, Jr.
Evaporation from Drops, Part II.
Chem. Eng. Prog., 48(4):173-180, April 1952.

286    R. D. Rauch, J. T. Batira, and N. T. Y. Yang.
Spatial Adaption Procedures on Unstructured Meshes for Accurate Unsteady Aerodynamic Flow Computations.
Technical Report AIAA-91-1106, aiaa, 1991.

287    R. D. Reitz.
Mechanisms of Atomization Processes in High-Pressure Vaporizing Sprays.
Atomization and Spray Technology, 3:309-337, 1987.

288    R. D. Reitz and F. V. Bracco.
Mechanism of Atomization of a Liquid Jet.
Phys. Fluids., 26(10), 1982.

289    R. D. Reitz and F. V. Bracco.
Mechanisms of Breakup of Round Liquid Jets.
The Encyclopedia of Fluid Mechanics, ed. N. Cheremisnoff, 3:223-249, 1986.

290    W. C. Reynolds.
Thermodynamic Properties in SI: Graphs, Tables, and Computational Equations for 40 Substances.
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, 1979.

291    W. C. Reynolds.
Fundamentals of turbulence for turbulence modeling and simulation.
Lecture Notes for Von Karman Institute Agard Report No. 755, 1987.

292    C. M. Rhie and W. L. Chow.
Numerical Study of the Turbulent Flow Past an Airfoil with Trailing Edge Separation.
AIAA Journal, 21(11):1525-1532, November 1983.

293    H. S. Ribner.
The Generation of Sound by turbulent jets.
In Advances in Applied Mathematics. Academic, New York, 1964.

294    J. R. Richardson and W. N. Zaki.
Sedimentation and Fluidization: Part I.
Trans. Inst. Chem. Eng., 32:35-53, 1954.

295    C. E. Roberts and R. D. Matthews.
Development and Application of an Improved Ring Pack Model for Hydrocarbon Emissions Studies.
SAE Technical Paper 961966, SAE, 1996.

296    P. L. Roe.
Characteristic based schemes for the Euler equations.
Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, 18:337-365, 1986.

297    R. Rota, D. Antos, E. F. Zanoelo, and M. Morbidelli.
Experimental and Modeling Analysis of the NOxOUT Process.
Chemical Engineering Science, 57:27-38, 2002.

298    P. G. Saffman.
The Lift on a Small Sphere in a Slow Shear Flow.
J. Fluid Mech., 22:385-400, 1965.

299    M. M. Salama and E. S. Venkatesh.
Evaluation of api rp14e erosional velocity limitations for offshore gas wells.
In OTC Conference, pages 371-376. Houston, May 1983.

300    S. Sarkar and L. Balakrishnan.
Application of a Reynolds-Stress Turbulence Model to the Compressible Shear Layer.
ICASE Report 90-18, NASA CR 182002, 1990.

301    S. Sarkar and M. Y. Hussaini.
Computation of the sound generated by isotropic turbulence.
NASA Contract Report 93-74, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, 1993.

302    S. S. Sazhin.
An Approximation for the Absorption Coefficient of Soot in a Radiating Gas.
Manuscript, Fluent Europe, Ltd., 1994.

303    D. G. Schaeffer.
Instability in the Evolution Equations Describing Incompressible Granular Flow.
J. Diff. Eq., 66:19-50, 1987.

304    R. W. Schefer, M. Namazian, and J. Kelly.
In Combustion Research Facility News, volume 3, number 4. Sandia, 1991.

305    L. Schiller and Z. Naumann.
Z. Ver. Deutsch. Ing., 77:318, 1935.

306    D. P. Schmidt and M. L. Corradini.
Analytical Prediction of the Exit Flow of Cavitating Orifices.
Atomization and Sprays, 7:6, 1997.

307    D. P. Schmidt, M. L. Corradini, and C. J. Rutland.
A Two-Dimensional, Non-Equilibrium Model of Flashing Nozzle Flow.
In 3rd ASME/JSME Joint Fluids Engineering Conference, 1999.

308    D. P. Schmidt, I. Nouar, P. K. Senecal, C. J. Rutland, J. K. Martin, and R. D. Reitz.
Pressure-Swirl Atomization in the Near Field.
SAE Paper 01-0496, SAE, 1999.

309    G.H. Schnerr and J. Sauer.
Physical and Numerical Modeling of Unsteady Cavitation Dynamics.
In Fourth International Conference on Multiphase Flow, New Orleans, USA,, 2001.

310    P. K. Senecal, D. P. Schmidt, I. Nouar, C. J. Rutland, and R. D. Reitz.
Modeling High Speed Viscous Liquid Sheet Atomization.
International Journal of Multiphase Flow, in press.

311    E. Sergent.
Vers une methodologie de couplage entre la Simulation des Grandes Echelles et les modeles statistiques.
PhD thesis, L'Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Lyon, France, 2002.

312    N. G. Shah.
A New Method of Computation of Radiant Heat Transfer in Combustion Chambers.
PhD thesis, Imperial College of Science and Technology, London, England, 1979.

313    T.-H. Shih, W. W. Liou, A. Shabbir, Z. Yang, and J. Zhu.
A New $k$- $\epsilon$ Eddy-Viscosity Model for High Reynolds Number Turbulent Flows - Model Development and Validation.
Computers Fluids, 24(3):227-238, 1995.

314    M. Shur, P. R. Spalart, M. Strelets, and A. Travin.
Detached-Eddy Simulation of an Airfoil at High Angle of Attack.
In 4th Int. Symposium on Eng. Turb. Modeling and Experiments, Corsica, France, May 1999.

315    R. Siegel and J. R. Howell.
Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer.
Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, Washington DC, 1992.

316    R. Siegel and C. M. Spuckler.
Effect of Refractive Index and Diffuse or Specular Boundaries on a Radiating Isothermal Layer.
J. Heat Transfer, 116:787-790, 1994.

317    C. Simonin and P. L. Viollet.
Predictions of an Oxygen Droplet Pulverization in a Compressible Subsonic Coflowing Hydrogen Flow.
Numerical Methods for Multiphase Flows, FED91:65-82, 1990.

318    A. K. Singhal, H. Y. Li, M. M. Athavale, and Y. Jiang.
Mathematical Basis and Validation of the Full Cavitation Model.
ASME FEDSM'01, New Orleans, Louisiana, 2001.

319    Y. R. Sivathanu and G. M. Faeth.
Generalized State Relationships for Scalar Properties in Non-Premixed Hydrocarbon/Air Flames.
Combustion and Flame, 82:211-230, 1990.

320    J. Smagorinsky.
General Circulation Experiments with the Primitive Equations. I. The Basic Experiment.
Month. Wea. Rev., 91:99-164, 1963.

321    R. Smirnov, S. Shi, and I. Celik.
Random Flow Generation Technique for Large Eddy Simulations and Particle-Dynamics Modeling.
Journal of Fluids Engineering, 123:359-371, 2001.

322    I. W. Smith.
Combustion and Flame, 17:421, 1971.

323    I. W. Smith.
The Intrinsic Reactivity of Carbons to Oxygen.
Fuel, 57:409-414, 1978.

324    I. W. Smith.
The Combustion Rates of Coal Chars: A Review.
In 19th Symp. (Int'l.) on Combustion, pages 1045-1065. The Combustion Institute, 1982.

325    J. M. Smith and H. C. Van Ness.
Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics.
McGraw Hill, New Jersey, 1986.

326    T. F. Smith, Z. F. Shen, and J. N. Friedman.
Evaluation of Coefficients for the Weighted Sum of Gray Gases Model.
J. Heat Transfer, 104:602-608, 1982.

327    L. D. Smoot and P. J. Smith.
NOx Pollutant Formation in a Turbulent Coal System.
In Coal Combustion and Gasification, page 373, Plenum, Plenum, NY, 1985.

328    D. O. Snyder, E. K. Koutsavdis, and J. S. R. Anttonen.
Transonic store separation using unstructured cfd with dynamic meshing.
Technical Report AIAA-2003-3913, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 33th AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference and Exhibit, 2003.

329    M. S. Solum, R. J. Pugmire, and D. M. Grant.
Energy and Fuels, 3:187, 1989.

330    C. Soteriou, R. Andrews, and M. Smith.
Direct Injection Diesel Sprays and the Effect of Cavitation and Hydraulic Flip on Atomization.
SAE Paper 950080, SAE, 1995.

331    P. Spalart and S. Allmaras.
A one-equation turbulence model for aerodynamic flows.
Technical Report AIAA-92-0439, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1992.

332    P. R. Spalart, S. Deck, M. L. Shur, K. D. Squires, M. K. Strelets, and A. Travin.
A new version of detached-eddy simulation, resistant to ambiguous grid densities.
Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics, 20:181-195, 2006.

333    D. B. Spalding.
Mixing and chemical reaction in steady confined turbulent flames.
In 13th Symp. (Int'l.) on Combustion. The Combustion Institute, 1970.

334    C. G. Speziale, S. Sarkar, and T. B. Gatski.
Modelling the Pressure-Strain Correlation of Turbulence: An Invariant Dynamical Systems Approach.
J. Fluid Mech., 227:245-272, 1991.

335    H. B. Squire.
Investigation of the Instability of a Moving Liquid Film.
British Journal of Applied Physics, 4:167, 1953.

336    D. W. Stanton and C. J. Rutland.
Modeling Fuel Film Formation and Wall Interaction in Diesel Engines.
SAE Paper 960628, 1996.

337    D. W. Stanton and C. J. Rutland.
Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Thin Liquid Films and Spray-Wall Interactions Resulting from Impinging Sprays.
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 41:3037-3054, 1998.

338    R. C. Steele, P. C. Malte, D. G. Nichol, and J. C. Kramlich.
NOx and N $_2$O in Lean-Premixed Jet-Stirred Flames.
Combustion and Flame, 100:440-449, 1995.

339    P. H. Steward, C. W. Larson, and D. Golden.
Combustion and Flame, 75, 1989.

340    S. Subramaniam and S. B. Pope.
A Mixing Model for Turbulent Reactive Flows Based on Euclidean Minimum Spanning Trees.
Combustion and Flame, 115:487-514, 1998.

341    M. Syamlal.
The Particle-Particle Drag Term in a Multiparticle Model of Fluidization.
National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA, 1987.
DOE/MC/21353-2373, NTIS/DE87006500.

342    M. Syamlal and T. J. O'Brien.
Computer Simulation of Bubbles in a Fluidized Bed.
AIChE Symp. Series, 85:22-31, 1989.

343    M. Syamlal, W. Rogers, and O'Brien T. J.
MFIX Documentation: Volume 1, Theory Guide.
National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA, 1993.
DOE/METC-9411004, NTIS/DE9400087.

344    D. Tabacco, C. Innarella, and C. Bruno.
Theoretical and Numerical Investigation on Flameless Combustion.
Combustion Science and Technology, 2002.

345    L. Talbot et al.
Thermophoresis of Particles in a Heated Boundary Layer.
J. Fluid Mech., 101(4):737-758, 1980.

346    I. Tanasawa.
Advances in Condensation Heat Transfer.
Advances in Heat Transfer, 21:55-139, 1991.

347    G. I. Taylor.
The Shape and Acceleration of a Drop in a High Speed Air Stream.
Technical report, In the Scientific Papers of G. I. Taylor, ed., G. K. Batchelor, 1963.

348    P. B. Taylor and P. J. Foster.
Some Gray Weighting Coefficients for CO $_2$-H $_2$O-Soot Mixtures.
Int. J. Heat Transfer, 18:1331-1332, 1974.

349    P. A. Tesner, T. D. Snegiriova, and V. G. Knorre.
Kinetics of Dispersed Carbon Formation.
Combustion and Flame, 17:253-260, 1971.

350    E. Turkel and V. N. Vatsa.
Choice of variables and preconditioning for time dependent problems.
Technical Report AIAA-2003-3692, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 16th AIAA Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference, Orlando, Florida, June 2003.

351    O. Ubbink.
Numerical Prediction of Two Fluid Systems With Sharp Interfaces.
PhD thesis, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, England, 1997.

352    B. Van Leer.
Toward the Ultimate Concervative Difference Scheme. IV. A Second Order Sequel to Godunov's Method.
Jounal of Computational Physics, 32:101-136, 1979.

353    J. P. Vandoormaal and G. D. Raithby.
Enhancements of the SIMPLE Method for Predicting Incompressible Fluid Flows.
Numer. Heat Transfer, 7:147-163, 1984.

354    S. A. Vasquez and V. A. Ivanov.
A Phase Coupled Method for Solving Multiphase Problems on Unstructured Meshes.
In Proceedings of ASME FEDSM'00: ASME 2000 Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting, Boston, June 2000.

355    V. Venkatakrishnan.
On The Accuracy of Limiters and Convergence to Steady State Solutions.
Technical Report AIAA-93-0880, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, January 1993.

356    S. Venkateswaran, J. M. Weiss, and C. L. Merkle.
Propulsion Related Flowfields Using the Preconditioned Navier-Stokes Equations.
Technical Report AIAA-92-3437, AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE 28th Joint Propulsion Conference, Nashville, TN, July 1992.

357    J. R. Viegas, M. W. Rubesin, and C. C. Horstman.
On the Use of Wall Functions as Boundary Conditions for Two-Dimensional Separated Compressible Flows.
Technical Report AIAA-85-0180, AIAA 23rd Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nevada, 1985.

358    V. R. Voller.
Modeling Solidification Processes.
Technical report, Mathematical Modeling of Metals Processing Operations Conference, American Metallurgical Society, Palm Desert, CA, 1987.

359    V. R. Voller, A. D. Brent, and C. Prakash.
The Modeling of Heat, Mass and Solute Transport in Solidification Systems.
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 32(9):1719-1731, 1989.

360    V. R. Voller, A. D. Brent, and K. J. Reid.
A Computational Modeling Framework for the Analysis of Metallurgical Solidification Process and Phenomena.
Technical report, Conference for Solidification Processing, Ranmoor House, Sheffield, September 1987.

361    V. R. Voller and C. Prakash.
A Fixed-Grid Numerical Modeling Methodology for Convection-Diffusion Mushy Region Phase-Change Problems.
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 30:1709-1720, 1987.

362    V. R. Voller and C. R. Swaminathan.
Generalized Source-Based Method for Solidification Phase Change.
Numer. Heat Transfer B, 19(2):175-189, 1991.

363    K. S. Vorres.
User's handbook for the Argonne premium coal sample bank.
Argonne National Laboratory, supported by DOE contract W-31-109-ENG-38, September 1989.
Also K. S. Vorres, ACS Div. Fuel Chem. preprint, 32:4, 1987.

364    D. Keith Walters and Davor Cokljat.
A three-equation eddy-viscosity model for reynolds-averaged navier-stokes simulations of transitional flows.
Journal of Fluids Engineering, 130, December 2008.

365    L. P. Wang.
On the Dispersion of Heavy Particles by Turbulent Motion.
PhD thesis, Washington State University, 1990.

366    Z. J. Wang.
A Fast Nested Multi-grid Viscous Flow Solver for Adaptive Cartesian/Quad Grids.
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, 33:657-680, 2000.

367    J. Warnatz.
NOx Formation in High Temperature Processes.
University of Stuttgart, Germany.

368    G. P. Warren, W. K. Anderson, J. L. Thomas, and S. L. Krist.
Grid convergence for adaptive methods.
Technical Report AIAA-91-1592, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, AIAA 10th Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii, June 1991.

369    C. Weber.
Zum Zerfall eines Flüssigkeitsstrahles.
ZAMM, 11:136-154, 1931.

370    J. M. Weiss, J. P. Maruszewski, and W. A. Smith.
Implicit Solution of the Navier-Stokes Equations on Unstructured Meshes.
Technical Report AIAA-97-2103, 13th AIAA CFD Conference, Snowmass, CO, July 1997.

371    J. M. Weiss, J. P. Maruszewski, and W. A. Smith.
Implicit Solution of Preconditioned Navier-Stokes Equations Using Algebraic Multigrid.
AIAA Journal, 37(1):29-36, 1999.

372    J. M. Weiss and W. A. Smith.
Preconditioning Applied to Variable and Constant Density Flows.
AIAA Journal, 33(11):2050-2057, November 1995.

373    C.-Y. Wen and Y. H. Yu.
Mechanics of Fluidization.
Chem. Eng. Prog. Symp. Series, 62:100-111, 1966.

374    Z. Wen, S. Yun, M. J. Thomson, and M. F. Lightstone.
Modeling Soot Formation in Turbulent Kerosene/Air Jet Diffusion Flames.
Combustion and Flame, 135:323-340, 2003.

375    H. Werner and H. Wengle.
Large-Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flow Over and Around a Cube in a Plate Channel.
In Eighth Symposium on Turbulent Shear Flows, Munich, Germany, 1991.

376    C. Westbrook and F. Dryer.
Chemical Kinetic Modelling of Hydrocarbon Combustion.
Prog. Energy Comb. Sci., page 1, 1984.

377    A. A. Westenberg.
Comb. Sci. Tech., 4:59, 1971.

378    F. White and G. Christoph.
A Simple New Analysis of Compressible Turbulent Skin Friction Under Arbitrary Conditions.
Technical Report AFFDL-TR-70-133, February 1971.

379    D. C. Wilcox.
Turbulence Modeling for CFD.
DCW Industries, Inc., La Canada, California, 1998.

380    F. A. Williams.
Turbulent Mixing in Nonreactive and Reactive Flows.
Plenum Press, New York, 1975.

381    F. Winter, C. Wartha, G. Loffler, and H. Hofbauer.
The NO and N $_2$O Formation Mechanism During Devolatilization and Char Combustion Under Fluidized Bed Conditions.
In 26th Symposium (Int'l) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, pages 3325-3334, 1996.

382    M. Wolfshtein.
The Velocity and Temperature Distribution of One-Dimensional Flow with Turbulence Augmentation and Pressure Gradient.
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 12:301-318, 1969.

383    P.-K. Wu, L.-K. Tseng, and G. M. Faeth.
Primary Breakup in Gas/Liquid Mixing Layers for Turbulent Liquids.
Atomization and Sprays, 2:295-317, 1995.

384    V. Yakhot and S. A. Orszag.
Renormalization Group Analysis of Turbulence: I. Basic Theory.
Journal of Scientific Computing, 1(1):1-51, 1986.

385    J. B. Young.
The Spontaneous Condensation od Steam in Supersonic Nozzles.
Physico Chemical Hydrodynamics, 3(2):57-82, July 1982.

386    J. B. Young.
An Equation of State for Steam for Turbomachinery and Other Flow Calculations.
Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 110:1-7, January 1988.

387    J. B. Young.
Two-Dimensional, Nonequilibrium, Wet-Steam Calculations for Nozzles and Turbine Cascades.
Journal of Turbomachinery, 114:569-579, July 1992.

388    D. L. Youngs.
Time-Dependent Multi-Material Flow with Large Fluid Distortion.
In K. W. Morton and M. J. Baines, editors, Numerical Methods for Fluid Dynamics. Academic Press, 1982.

389    Q. Zhou and M. A. Leschziner.
Technical report, 8th Turbulent Shear Flows Symp., Munich, 1991.

390    V. Zimont.
Gas Premixed Combustion at High Turbulence. Turbulent Flame Closure Model Combustion Model.
Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 21:179-186, 2000.

391    V. Zimont, W. Polifke, M. Bettelini, and W. Weisenstein.
An Efficient Computational Model for Premixed Turbulent Combustion at High Reynolds Numbers Based on a Turbulent Flame Speed Closure.
J. of Gas Turbines Power, 120:526-532, 1998.

392    V. L. Zimont, F. Biagioli, and K. J. Syed.
Modelling Turbulent Premixed Combustion in the Intermediate Steady Propagation Regime.
Progress in Computational Fluid Dynamics, 1(1):14-28, 2001.

393    V. L. Zimont and A. N. Lipatnikov.
A Numerical Model of Premixed Turbulent Combustion of Gases.
Chem. Phys. Report, 14(7):993-1025, 1995.

394    P.J. Zwart.
Numerical Modelling of Free Surface and Cavitating Flows.
VKI Lecture Series, 2005.

395    P.J. Zwart, A.G. Gerber, and T. Belamri.
A Two-Phase Flow Model for Predicting Cavitation Dynamics.
In Fifth International Conference on Multiphase Flow, Yokohama, Japan, 2004.

next up previous contents index Previous: Nomenclature
Up: ANSYS FLUENT 12.0 Theory Guide
Next: Index
Release 12.0 © ANSYS, Inc. 2009-01-23