Terrestrial Laser Scanning
A 3D scanner is a device that analyzes a real-world object or environment to collect data on its shape and possibly its appearance (i.e. color). The collected data can then be used to construct digital, three dimensional models.
Many different technologies can be used to build these 3D scanning devices; each technology comes with its own limitations, advantages and costs. Many limitations in the kind of objects that can be digitized are still present, for example, optical technologies encounter many difficulties with shiny, mirroring or transparent objects.
Collected 3D data is useful for a wide variety of applications. These devices are used extensively by the entertainment industry in the production of movies and video games. Other common applications of this technology include industrial design, orthotics and prosthetics, reverse engineering and prototyping, quality control/inspection and documentation of cultural artifacts.
The GraphLab 3D has a TOF Laser Scanner HDS3000 by Leica Geosystems.
HDS 3000 is an high-speed and high precision3D scanner laser, based on the time-of-flight technology, combining different features which make him suitable for a wide field of applications. The maximum instrument range is about 300 meters, with an accuracy of 3mm at 50 meters, and covers a maximum of 360° horizontal and 270° vertical field-of-view. For each location, the instrument calculates the distance from 0 (determined by the position of the laser) of each point of the target surfaces, according to the time interval between the emission of the laser pulse and the reflected signal, recorded by a detector.
At the same time, an internal color camera acquires a digital image of the scanned scene, so that the cloud of points obtained consists in a data set, including space coordinates (x, y, z,) the value of reflectance and color data for each detected point.
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Laser Scanning Survey of the Basilica of San Paolo Maggiore in Bologna (in Italian)